This First Aid Chart
is not intended to take the place of qualified help
in the event of an emergency. In any emergency,
medical advice and
assistance when you think it is needed. It is also
recommended that you take a certified CPR and first
Flush the wound area with
water and then wash with soap and water for at least
five minutes. Cover with a clean dressing or cloth.
Immediately seek care at a hospital or physician.
As soon as possible
following the injury, dip a cloth in ice water and
hold next to the area for at least 10 minutes. A
is essentially a bruise
around the eye that will cause pain and swelling and
gradually fade in time. If the bruise does not fade
or if there is a change
in vision, consult a physician.
– Wash wound area with soap and water, not alcohol;
cover with a sterile gauze bandage.
– If blood appears to be gushing or spurting, follow
these instructions and call for help. Take a clean
cloth or towel and
press hard on the cut for
10 minutes. Do not remove pressure to see if it’s
working. If possible, raise the cut above the level
the chest. After 10
minutes, if the bleeding has stopped, cover the cut
with a bandage. If the bleeding hasn’t stopped, try
pressing harder for five
more minutes and seek medical help.
– Immediately cool the burn area by putting it under
cool running water or in a sink filled with cool
water for at least
five minutes or until the
pain subsides. Never apply butter, grease or
ointment. Don’t open blisters or remove dead skin.
Cover with gauze. If
blisters break, apply a clean dressing. If the burn
is on the face, covers an area bigger than your hand
it blisters, call the
doctor or emergency number.
– Have victim lie down
and cover him or her. Never remove clothing or clean
the burns. Call for emergency help.
– Quickly flush area with water for five
minutes, cover with gauze and call for emergency
If the person is choking and
unable to talk or breathe, get behind the person and
wrap your arms around the waist. Make a fist, grasp
fist with other hand. Place fist against the stomach
just above the navel but well below the lower tip of
the breastbone. Pull fist upward into the stomach
with a quick upward thrust. Repeat up to four times.
If choking continues, seek medical help. If the
victim becomes unconscious, lay him or her down,
roll to side, pull the tongue and jaw forward and
with your index finger, dislodge any visible matter.
Perform mouth to-mouth resuscitation and/or CPR.
Gently prevent person from
hurting him or herself on nearby objects. Loosen
clothing after jerking subsides. Have person
lie down. Help keep the airway open. Turn head to
the side in case of vomiting to prevent choking on
inhaled vomitus. If breathing stops, administer
mouth-to-mouth resuscitation or CPR. After seizure,
allow patient to rest. Seek medical attention.
Turn off electricity if
possible. If not possible, pull victim from the
electrical contact with a dry rope, wooden pole or
cloth. Do not touch victim until contact with
electric current is broken. Administer CPR. Call for
– Have person turn
head so injured side is
down. Flood eye with water for at least 15 minutes.
Cover eye with clean cloth and seek professional
– Do not rub
the eye, that may cause
deeper injury. Try to locate the object; if it is in
the pupil, or seems embedded in the white of the
eye, go immediately to the emergency room. If the
object is floating in the liquid surface, you can
try to remove it. Hold the lower lid open, look up,
and using the edge of a clean cloth, brush the
matter quickly off the eye’s surface. If you can’t
object, pull the upper lid
down and over the lower lid and let it slide back
up. This may dislodge the particle. If pain and
tearing persist, seek medical help.
Lay patient on his or her back and
raise both legs above the heart. Check airway to be
certain it is clear. Loosen tight clothing
apply cold cloths to the face. If fainting lasts
more than a minute or two, keep patient covered and
seek medical help.
Stop any bleeding and cover wounds with clean
dressings. Keep victim comfortably warm to prevent
shock. If you suspect
broken bones, do not move
person unless absolutely necessary (such as in case
of fire). Call for emergency help.
Fishhook injuries carry a
high risk of infection, so if you can reach a
physician, do so. If you are far from medical help,
push the hook farther through the tissue until it
goes through the skin. Don’t pull it out; the barb
will cause further injury. Using wire cutters, cut
off the barb, and then pull the hook back through
the skin. Clean and bandage the wound and seek
medical attention as soon as possible.
bleeding and cover wound with clean dressing. If it
is a simple fracture, set it in a splint (wood,
rolled-up blanket, pillow,
etc.) supported with cloth or rope ties. Do not move
patient if back or neck injury is suspected. Keep
person warm and treat for shock (see Shock). Call
for emergency help.
Signs and symptoms: The skin of hands,
feet, face or other areas first becomes red, then
turns gray or white. Never rub frostbitten area with
snow; that will only continue the chilling of the
tissue and cause further damage. A gradual warming,
by immersing the area in water that is slightly
warmer than body, is safe for slight frostbite.
Elevate the affected area, cover with dry and warm
garments and consider pain relievers if there is
slight pain. Keep frostbitten toes or fingers
separate with clean, dry cloths. Hospitalization is
necessary for children whose body temperatures drop
below 93°F and for adults who have severe frostbite.
Don’t sit in front of an
oven or fire to warm the
frostbitten area; unequal exposure to the heat could
burn the tissue. Don’t massage the damaged area
or rub with snow. Do not break blisters or give
alcoholic drinks. Contact your physician or
emergency room immediately.
symptoms of simple concussion include headache,
slight dizziness, queasy stomach or vomiting. These
require an ice pack to the head and rest.
Observe for any severe symptoms such as unusual
drowsiness, unequal pupils,
confusion and lack of coordination. If one or more
of these conditions are present, immediately seek
INSECT BITES AND STINGS
Bee or wasp
sting – Try to remove stinger by
gently scraping with a clean knife blade. Cleanse
with soap and water and apply an ice compress to
reduce swelling. If person has an allergic reaction
(will happen within 30 minutes), hives, itching all
vomiting or a history of allergic
reaction, follow directions on bee sting kit, if
available. Call for emergency help.
– Cover the insect’s body with a heavy oil or
lighter fluid and allow to remain for about 20
remove with tweezers, being
sure to remove all parts of the insect. Scrub area
with soap and water.
bites – Use hydrocortisone cream,
calamine lotion or rubbing alcohol.
Have person sit down and
lean forward. Pinch nose and have person breathe
through the mouth. Or pack bleeding nostril(s) with
gauze and pinch. if bleeding persists, call a
Don’t force to vomit immediately. Call poison
control. Tell them what substance and how much was
swallowed. Take the bottle or package to the phone
when you call. Directions on the container may not
be up to date. Always follow the instructions given
by the poison control center. Do not give the
patient fluids or cause to vomit if unconscious or
in convulsions. Call for emergency help.
Have person lie down,
loosen clothing and cover to prevent loss of body
heat. Be cautious not to overheat. Check pulse rate
and seek professional help.
Tweezers remove most splinters easily,
but a physician should remove deeply embedded
splinters. If the length of the splinter
visible under the skin, use a sterilized needle to
slit the skin over the splinter and pull out the
splinter with the tweezers. Clean
SPRAINS & STRAINS
Elevate the injured joint to a comfortable position.
Apply an ice bag or a cold compress over the sprain
to reduce pain and swelling. Ability to move does
not rule out fracture. Person should not bear weight
on a sprain. Sprains that continue to swell should
be examined by a physician.
When person cannot
be aroused, lay in a flat position and make sure the
victim’s airway is clear. Check pulse rate. If no
felt, begin administering CPR. Keep the
person comfortable and warm. Never give an
unconscious person food or liquid. If
occurs, turn head to the side to prevent choking on
inhaled vomitus. Call for medical help.
ABCs OF LIFE SUPPORT
first aid procedure consists of recognizing
stoppage of breathing and heartbeat — then
applying cardiopulmonary resuscitation
(CPR). This involves:
(A) opening and
maintaining person’s airway;
(C) providing artificial
circulation by external cardiac compression
rescuers: Give 60 chest
compressions per minute —
after each five compressions. One rescuer:
both artificial circulation and
rescue breathing, giving 80 chest
compressions per minute — two full breaths
Airway open. Turn
person on back and quickly remove any
foreign matter from mouth. Place your
hand under person’s neck and lift, tilting
head back as far as possible with other
hand. This opens an
small children and infants:
Cover nose and mouth
with your mouth,
blow gently, 20 times per minute. For
compressions,use only heel of one hand
for children; only the tips ofindex and
middle fingers for infants. Give 80 to 100
compressions per minute, with one breath
after each five compressions.
restored. If person is not
breathing, place your mouth tightly over his
or hers, pinch nostrils and blow into mouth
until you see the chest rise. Remove your
mouth. Give two breaths and
neck pulse (see C below). If pulse is
present, continue rescue breathing at a rate
of 12 times per minute.
Quickly feel for neck pulse: Keeping
person’s head tilted with one hand, use
middle and index fingers of other hand to
feel for carotid pulse in neck artery under
side angle of lower jaw. If no pulse, start
rescue breathing and external cardiac
compressions. Person's back should be on firm
surface. Place heel of your hand on lower
breastbone (about 1 1/2 inches up from the
tip), with fingers off chest and other hand
on top. Gently rock forward, exerting
pressure down, to force blood out of the
heart. Release pressure.
(B) breathing with (C) circulation.